General: Fire Safety Technology (11) Gas Fire Extinguishing System

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The first section   System Components

First, the classification of gas fire extinguishing systems

Gas fire extinguishing system can be divided into two types: full flooding system and local application system according to the protection form of protection object; according to its installation structure, it can be divided into pipe network fire extinguishing system and pipe network cabinet type fire extinguishing device. In the pipe network fire extinguishing system It can also be divided into a combination of fire extinguishing system and unit independent fire extinguishing system; according to the use of fire extinguishing agent classification can be divided into carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system, halogenated alkane fire extinguishing system and inert gas fire extinguishing system.

Second, the composition of the gas fire extinguishing system

The gas fire extinguishing system is generally composed of an extinguishing agent bottle group, a driving gas bottle group, a check valve, a selection valve, a decompression device, a drive device, a manifold, a connection pipe, a nozzle, a signal feedback device, a safety relief device, a control panel, Leakage detection device, low leakage high sealing valve, pipe fittings and other components. Different gas fire extinguishing systems have different structural forms and number of components (Figure 3-8-1 -1 ).

Section II   System components, components (equipment) check before installation

Before the gas fire extinguishing system is installed and installed, on-site inspection (inspection) of the system components, pipe fittings and other equipment and materials shall be performed according to the quality control requirements of the construction process. Unqualified components, pipe fittings, equipment and materials shall not be used.

First, quality control documents inspection

(a) check the contents

After the system components, components, and other equipment and materials arrive at the site, check the following contents of their quality control documents:

1. Outbound factory components, parts and components, other equipment, materials, etc.

2. The statutory test reports of the main components of the container valves, selector valves, pressure switches, check valves, alarm controllers, and leak detection devices that have passed the test of the National Fire Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center.

(B) Inspection methods and requirements

Compare the specifications and models of on-site components, components, equipment and materials, check and verify the quality control documents such as the factory certificate, quality certification certificate and statutory testing agency's inspection qualification report, and check whether the copies are consistent with the original.

Second, material inspection

After the system components, fittings (materials) and equipment arrive on the site, check their appearance, specifications, basic performance, and stringency.

1. The types, specifications and performance of pipe and pipe fittings meet the corresponding product standards and design requirements.

2. In addition to meeting the design requirements, the appearance quality of pipe and pipe fittings must also meet the following requirements:

( 1 ) The galvanized layer must not have defects such as falling off or being damaged;

( 2 ) There must be no defects such as lack of lines, broken lines, etc. in the threaded connection pipe connections;

( 3 ) There must be no defects or cracks on the flange sealing surface;

( 4 ) The gasket should be intact without scratches.

3. The specifications, dimensions, thickness, and allowable deviations of pipe and pipe fittings should meet their product standards and design requirements.

Third, the system components

(a) appearance inspection

Appearance quality requirements of gas fire extinguishing system components:

1. System components without collision deformation and other mechanical damage;

2. The component is exposed and the non-machined surface protection coating is intact;

3. All exposed components of the module are equipped with protective plugs and caps, and they are well-sealed. The interface threads and flange sealing surfaces are not damaged.

4. The nameplate is clear, firm and correct;

5. The fire extinguishing agent storage container of the same specification, the height difference should not exceed 20mm ;

6. The same specification of the driving gas storage container, the height difference should not exceed 10mm .

(four) valve drive inspection

Valve Drive Assembly Inspection Requirements:

1. The power supply voltage of the electromagnetic driver meets the system design requirements. Check the electromagnet core with electricity, its stroke can meet the system start-up requirement, and the movement is flexible and there is no jamming phenomenon.

2. Pneumatic driving device The gas pressure in the storage container is not lower than the design pressure and must not exceed 5% of the design pressure . The check valve on the gas-driven pipeline can be opened and closed flexibly without any jamming.

3. The mechanical drive device has flexible transmission and no jamming.

Section III   System components installation and commissioning

Installation and adjustment of gas fire extinguishing systems, inspection and acceptance include the installation of fire extinguishing agent storage devices, installation of selection valves and signal feedback devices, installation of fire extinguishing agent pipelines, system commissioning, and system inspection and acceptance.

First, the installation requirements

(I) Fire extinguishing agent storage installation

1. The installation location of the storage device must meet the requirements of the design document;

2. After the extinguishing agent storage device is installed, the pressure relief device should not be oriented toward the operating surface. The safety valve of the low pressure carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system shall be taken outside through a dedicated pressure relief pipe;

(B) Selection of valve and signal feedback device installation

1. Select the valve operating handle to be installed on the side of the operation surface, and take measures to facilitate operation when the installation height exceeds 1.7m ;

2. The use of threaded connection selection valve, its connection with the pipe network should adopt live connection;

3. Select the flow direction indicator of the valve to point to the media flow direction;

4. Select a permanent signboard on the valve that indicates the protection zone or the name or number of the protection object, and it should be easy to observe;

(III) Installation of Valve Drives

2. When installing a gravity-type mechanical drive device, ensure that the weight does not block during the drop stroke, and the drop stroke must ensure the required drive distance and not less than 25mm .

5. Piping regulations for pneumatic drives:

( 1 ) The piping layout meets the design requirements;

( 2 ) Vertical pipe is installed with anti-slopping bracket at the beginning and end of the pipe or fixed with a pipe clamp;

( 3 ) The horizontal pipe is fixed with a pipe clamp. The spacing between the tube cards should not be greater than 0.6m . Bend pipe should be added a card.

6. After the pneumatic drive device is installed, conduct air tightness test.

During the test, gradually increase the pressure gradually. When the pressure rises to 50% of the test pressure , if no abnormality or leakage is found, continue to step-up the pressure by 10% of the test pressure . Each stage is regulated for 3 minutes until the test pressure value is reached. . Maintain the pressure, check the deformation of the pipeline, no leakage is qualified.

(4) Installation of fire extinguishing pipelines

1. Extinguishing agent pipeline connection requirements

( 1 ) When using a threaded connection, the pipe should be mechanically cut; the thread should be free from defects such as lack of lines, broken lines, etc.; the threaded sealing material should be evenly attached to the threaded part of the pipe; when tightening the thread, the filler must not be squeezed into the pipe; After the root of the thread should have 2 to 3 exposed threads; after the connection, clean the outside of the joint and do anti-corrosion treatment;

( 2 ) When using a flange connection, the gasket shall not protrude into the tube. The outer edge of the gasket shall be close to the bolt, and no double pad or offset pad may be placed. The bolts of the connecting flange are of a diameter and length that conform to the standards. After tightening, the length of the protruding nut is no more than 1/2 of the diameter of the screw and no less than 2 exposed threads are retained ;

( 3 ) The seamless steel pipe that has been treated for corrosion should not be welded. When separate connection points such as selector valves are to be welded by flanges, the anti-corrosion coating that is damaged by welding must be subjected to secondary anti-corrosion treatment.

2. The pipe is installed through the wall and floor. The nominal diameter of the casing is at least 2 levels greater than the nominal diameter of the pipeline . The length of the casing passing through the wall shall be equal to the wall thickness. The length of the casing passing through the floor shall be 50 mm higher than the floor . The gap between the pipe and the casing is filled with a fireproof plugging material. When the pipeline passes through the deformation joints of the building, a flexible pipe section must be provided.

5. The outer surface of the extinguishing agent delivery pipe should be painted with red paint. The pipes in the concealed places such as the ceiling and under the raised floor can be painted with red paint rings. The color ring width should not be less than 50mm . The color ring width of each protection zone or protection object must be the same and the spacing should be uniform.

(7) Installation of control components

1. The installation of the fire extinguishing control device meets the design requirements. The installation of the fire detector in the protection zone conforms to the provisions of GB 50166 , the national standard “Code for the Construction and Acceptance of Automatic Fire Alarm System” .

2. The manual and automatic transfer switch installed at the protection zone should be installed at the convenient entrance of the protection zone. The installation height should be 1.5m from the center (floor) of the center point .

3. The manual start and stop buttons are installed at the convenient entrance of the protection zone. The installation height is 1.5m from the ground (floor) at the center ; the sound and light alarm device installed in the protection zone meets the design requirements and is firmly installed without tilting.

4. The gas discharge indicator should be installed directly above the entrance of the protection zone.

Second, system debugging

The commissioning of the gas fire extinguishing system is completed after the installation of the system, and the related fire alarm system, the opening automatic shut-off device, the ventilating machinery, and the fire prevention valve and other linkage equipment are completed. When commissioning tests, take reliable measures to ensure the safety of personnel and property.

Commissioning projects include simulated start-up tests, simulated jet tests and simulated switching operation tests. After the commissioning is completed, the system components and linkage devices are returned to normal working conditions.

(I) System debugging preparation

1. Before the commissioning of the gas fire extinguishing system, it must have complete technical data and comply with relevant regulations;

2. Check the type, specification, quantity, and system installation quality of the system components and materials as required before commissioning, and deal with the problems found in a timely manner.

(two) system debugging requirements

When the system is commissioned, the system shall be manually and automatically simulated and tested according to regulations for all protection zones or protection objects, and shall be qualified.

1. Simulation start test

1 ) Commissioning requirements

At the time of commissioning, a simulated jet test was carried out on all protective zones or objects of protection in accordance with the specifications, and passed.

2 ) Simulation start test method

( 1 ) Manual simulation start test is performed as follows:

Press the manual start button to observe whether the relevant action signal and linkage device action is normal (such as sound, light alarm, start the load response of the output, turn off ventilation air conditioning, fire dampers, etc.). Manually start the pressure signal feedback device and observe whether the gas discharge indicator outside the relevant protection zone is normal.

( 2 ) Automatic simulation start test is performed as follows:

1 Connect the starting output of the fire extinguishing controller with the corresponding protection zone drive of the fire extinguishing system. The drive unit and the valve's operating mechanism are disengaged. Promoter can also be a starting voltage, current and the drive means, instead of the same current load;

2 artificial simulation of the fire alarm to any one of the fire detectors within the protection zone , observe the output of a single fire alarm signal, the relevant alarm device action is normal (such as alarm bells, buzzer alarm sounds, etc.);

(3) Artificially simulate the fire alarm to make another fire detector in the protection zone to operate. After observing the output of the composite fire alarm signal, whether the relevant action signal and linkage device action is normal (such as emitting sound, light alarm, starting the load response of the output end, shutting down the ventilation and air conditioning, Fire dampers, etc.);

( 3 ) Simulation start test results requirements:

1 The delay time is consistent with the set time, and the response time meets the requirements;

2 Sound and light alarm signals are correct;

3 linkage equipment moves correctly;

4 The drive operates reliably.

2. Simulated jet test

1 ) Commissioning requirements

At the time of commissioning, a simulated jet test was carried out on all protective areas or protected objects and passed.

The simulated jet test of the prefabricated fire extinguishing system should adopt one set of each for the test, and the test should be carried out according to the provisions in the product standard concerning the “linkage test”.

3. Analog switching operation test

1 ) Commissioning requirements

Systems equipped with an extinguishing agent reserve and storage containers connected to the same manifold shall be tested for simulated switching operations and shall be qualified.

2 ) Analog switching operation test method

( 1 ) According to the operating instructions of the instruction manual, switch the system usage status from the main amount of fire extinguishing agent storage container to the standby amount of fire extinguishing agent storage container.

( 2 ) Simulate the jet test according to the method in this section.

3 ) The test results are in accordance with the results of the simulated jet test described above.

Section IV   System testing and acceptance

After the completion of the installation and commissioning of the gas fire extinguishing system, a qualified fire-fighting facility inspection agency is commissioned to carry out the technical inspection. All system components and function tests must be checked. Inspections include visual inspections, installation checks, and functional checks.

First, system testing

(B) High-pressure storage device

1. Visual inspection requirements

( 1 ) The storage container has no obvious collision deformation and mechanical damage defects, the surface of the storage container should be painted red, the coating is intact and uniform, and the manual operation device is sealed;

( 2 ) The ambient temperature between the storage devices is -10 °C ~ 50 °C ; the ambient temperature of the high-pressure carbon dioxide storage device is 0 °C ~ 49 °C .

2. Installation inspection requirements

( 1 ) The specifications and quantity of the storage container conform to the requirements of the design document, and the specifications and dimensions of the storage container of the same system shall be the same, and the height difference shall not exceed 20mm ;

( 2 ) The surface of the storage container shall be marked with the number. The front of the container shall indicate the name of the extinguishing agent as specified in the design, and the handwriting shall be clearly marked. The storage device shall be provided with a durable fixed nameplate, indicating the model of the device, the specification of the storage bottle, and the date of manufacture; each container shall bear a bottle label, with the name of the fire extinguishing agent, filling volume, filling date and storage pressure, etc. ;

( 3 ) The storage container must be fixed on the bracket, and the bracket and the building components should be fixed, which should be firm and reliable, and be treated with anti-corrosion. The distance between the operation surface and the wall or operation surface should not be less than 1.0m , and should not be less than the external diameter of the storage container. 1.5 times;

( 4 ) The pressure gauge on the valve of the container has no obvious mechanical damage. The installation direction in the same system should be the same, and the front face should face the operation surface. The installation height difference of the pressure gauge on the container valve in the same system should not exceed 10mm . When the difference is large, the use of spacers is allowed to be adjusted; the carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system shall be equipped with a leak detection device;

( 5 ) The filling volume and storage pressure of the fire extinguishing agent storage container shall conform to the design documents and shall not exceed 1.5% of the design filling volume ; the actual pressure in the halogenated fire extinguishing agent storage container shall not be lower than the storage pressure at the corresponding temperature, and shall not exceed The storage pressure of 5% ; storage container filled with carbon dioxide mass loss of not more than 10% ;

( 6 ) flexible connection between the container valve and the header;

( 7 ) The total amount of fire extinguishing agent and the fire extinguishing dose in each protective zone comply with the design documents. When the carbon dioxide gas fire extinguishing system combined distribution and protection of 5 or more 5 or a protected area protected object, or can not be recovered within 48h, the amount of carbon dioxide have a spare, the storage system can not fire another 72h refilling rehabilitation , Reserve 100% of the original system storage capacity , fire protection agent reserves in each protection area to meet the design documents.

3. Functional inspection requirements

When the loss of carbon dioxide in the storage container is greater than 10% , the leak detection device of the CO2 fire extinguishing system shall be properly alarmed.

(VIII) Protection areas and objects of protection

1. The fire-resistance limit of the enclosure structure and doors and windows of the protection zone should not be lower than 0.50h ; the fire-resistance limit of the ceiling should not be lower than 0.25h . The allowable pressure of the enclosure envelope structure to withstand internal pressure should not be lower than 1200Pa ;

2. When a combined distribution system is used in two or more protection areas, a protected area protected by a combined distribution system should not exceed eight ;

3. The relief area should be provided in the protection area. Relief port provided on the outer wall should be, and should be located in protected area clear height of more than 2/3;

4. Before the fire extinguishing agent is sprayed, the opening in the protective area except the pressure relief port shall be able to close by itself;

5. The permanent entrance signboard of the corresponding gas extinguishing system used in the protection zone shall be provided at the entrance of the protection zone; the fire extinguishing agent discharge indicator shall be placed directly above the entrance of the protection zone; a fire and light alarm shall be installed at the entrance; A fire alarm shall be provided in the protection zone. If necessary, a flash alarm may be added. The protection zone shall have access to the evacuation channels and exits within 30s , and the evacuation channel and exit shall be provided with emergency lighting devices and evacuation indicators.

Second, the system acceptance

After completion of the gas fire extinguishing system, project acceptance shall be carried out, and acceptance shall not be put into use if it is unqualified. System acceptance mainly includes the following:

(I) Inspection and acceptance of protective areas or objects and storage devices

1 . Protected areas or protected objects meet design requirements:

Locations, uses, divisions, geometrical dimensions, openings, ventilation, ambient temperature, types of combustibles, pressure-resistance, fire-resistance limits of protective areas or protective objects, and doors and windows can be self-closing devices.

2. Protection areas The following safety facilities should be set up to meet the design requirements.

( 1 ) Evacuation routes, evacuation signs, and emergency lighting devices in protected areas;

( 2 ) Acousto-optical alarm devices, gas discharge indicator lights and safety signs at entrances in protective areas and entrances;

( 3 ) Exhaust devices for the above ground protection zone and underground protection zone without windows or fixed sashes;

( 4 ) The pressure relief device of the protective zone with a sealing strip for doors and windows;

( 5 ) Dedicated air breathing apparatus .

Section V   System maintenance management

The fire extinguishing system shall be regularly inspected and maintained by specialized personnel who have been specially trained and qualified in passing the examination. The gas fire extinguishing system shall be inspected in accordance with the inspection category, and inspection records shall be made. Any problems found in the inspection shall be promptly dealt with.

First, the system inspection

System inspection is the inspection of the visual properties of the building's firefighting facilities. Gas fire extinguishing system inspection is mainly for the daily inspection of the appearance of system components, on-site operation status, system detection device working status, and installation site environmental conditions.

Second, the system periodic inspection and maintenance

The periodic inspection of the system refers to the inspection and testing of the components and parts of gas extinguishing systems that have been put into use according to the requirements of the national engineering fire fighting technical standards.

(a) monthly inspection items

1. Check the project and its inspection cycle

The following items are to be ch


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